What is life?’ is a fundamental question that still lacks a satisfactory answer. The development of basic biological science that started in the 20th century has enabled the study of living organisms from various perspectives and has changed our conceptions regarding “life”. Nowadays, life is observed and studied at diverse levels from molecules to ecosystems. The department consists of three divisions that cover molecular, cellular, and developmental biology. These divisions include plant and animal sciences, microbiology, and basic medicine. In addition, we focus on biodiversity with advanced methodologies of phylogeny and ecology. Research in these diverse fields is conducted using mutually beneficial approaches, and integration of these research activities will equip us to answer the fundamental questions in Biology.