Salat (Namaz) is open for . The scholarship allows level programm(s) in the field of taught at . The deadline of the scholarship is .
Among the five pillars of Islam, Salat occupies the 2nd place. Literal meaning
of salat is to pray and according to Islam it is a kind of physical and
spiritual worship in which a Muslim glorifies the attributes of Almighty Allah
in different postures of human body five times a day. In English it is generally
translated as Service of Worship. The Holy Quran speaks of it more than a
hundred times and continuously accentuates on its importance and utility.
It is obligatory upon the Muslims on it's prescribed times as declared
by Almighty Allah in verse No. 103 of Surah Al Nisa / Chapter Women, which
states, “When you have finished the Prayer, remember Allah
– standing, and sitting, and reclining. And when you become secure, perform the
regular Prayer. Prayer at it's prescribed times is enjoined upon the
Like other rituals of Islam, Salat/Prayer was
also obligatory upon the people of other prophets who preceded the Holy Prophet
(PBUH). This aspect has been clearly expounded in the Holy Quran at different
places. The advice of Hazrat Luqman to his son about salat has been elaborated
in verse No.17 of Surah Luqman which states, “Son
establish prayer, enjoin good and forbid evil, and endure with patience whatever
affliction befalls you. Surely these have been emphatically enjoined.”
In verse No.31 of Surah Maryam/Chapter the Mary, the Christ said to
his people, “And He has blessed me wherever I may be; and
He has enjoined on me Salat and Zakat so long as I live”.
in verse No. 40 of Surah Ibrahim, Hazrat Ibraheem/Abraham prayed to Almighty
Allah, “My Lord! Enable me and my offspring to establish
prayer, and do accept, our Lord, this prayer of mine”.
Salat was also
obligatory on the children of Israel as the Almighty Allah says in verse No. 12
of Surah Maida/ Chapter the Repast “Surely Allah took a
covenant with the children of Israel, and We raised up from them twelve of their
leaders, and Allah said: Behold, I am with you if you establish Prayer and pay
Zakah and believe in My prophets and help them, and lend Allah a goodly loan, I
will certainly efface from you your evil deeds, and will surely cause you to
enter the Gardens beneath which rivers flow. Whosoever of you disbelieves
thereafter has indeed gone astray from the Right Way”.
If we compare Muslim prayers 'Salat' with those performed by the followers of other
religions, we are convinced with the perfection of this Islamic institution. The
Jews go to synagogue and sit there while the rabbi recites the Psalms/Torah and
they disperse at the end of recitation. The Christians recite the Bible during
service in church and observe the ritual of Communion. There is fire worship
among Zoroastrians. Hindus worship the cow and idols in their temples. The
Budhists have a peculiar method of worship in their monasteries and the Sikhs
worship in their Gurdwaras.
The Islamic form of worship/prayer commences
in a standing position of human body with the recitation of Surat-al-Fatihah /
Chapter the Opening, the first Surah in the Quran. This is the direct praise of
God in which a Muslim dispenses with symbolism and establishes direct contact
with his Creator. This Surah is followed by some other verses of the Holy Quran.
Then a Muslim glorifies the praise of Allah Almighty in bowing down/kneeling
position and then in prostration which signifies the humbleness of a Muslim and
the greatness of Allah Almighty. Then the Muslim offering Salat adopts sitting
position or Al-tahiyyah. When a person gets an audience of a senior he salutes
him. So does a Muslim for this is precisely the meaning of Al-tahiyyah. It is
legacy of the Ascension (Meraaj) of the Prophet (PBUH). When he reached the
Divine presence, the Prophet (PBUH) pronounced a salutation. God graciously
replied: “Peace be on you O Messenger, and the mercy and
blessings of God”. The Prophet (PBUH) thought of his Ummah/people and
responded: “Peace be on us and on the servants of God who are
He thus included us all, the humble members of his Ummah, in
the blessings which were descending from God. Muslims include this salutation in
their prayer. The Islamic prayers in fact sum up the attributes of the prayers
of all other religions.
The Holy Prophet (PBUH) has declared that the
distinguishing feature between a Muslim and non-Muslim is Prayer/Salat. He has
also termed Prayer/Salat as the pillar of Deen/Islam. Unlike other modes of
worship of Islam, it is obligatory on each and every adult Muslim and in each
and every condition of human life. If a Muslim is unable to stand then Salat has
to be offered in the sitting position and if he/she is even not able to sit then
he/she has to offer Salat through gestures. Even in the battlefields, the Holy
Prophet (PBUH) used to divide the army into groups at the time of salat. One
group would remain engaged in warfare and the other would offer salat. After
offering salat this grup would join the battlefield and the remaining one would
offer salat which exhibits the importance of salat. A woman is exempted from
offering salat during days of her menstrual course and after birth discharge.
According to Islamic teachings the first question to be asked on the Day of
Judgment would be about Salat/Prayer.
The recommended way of offering
salat is to offer it in congregation in mosque. Islam lays special stress on
prayer in congregation. The God Almighty commands in verse No.43 of Surah Baqara
/ Chapter the Cow, “Establish Salat, give Zakat and bow
down your heads with those who bow down (in worship)”.
Prophet (PBUH) said, “A prayer performed in congregation
is twenty-seven times better than the one that is offered
Salat is having far reaching pleasant and positive
effects on human life. The most important benefit of Salat is that it is a
source of inner and outer purification. The pre-requisites of salat such as
purity of body, attire, place and performance of ablution are the sources of
outer purity. A Muslim who observes his/her Prayers/Salt would always take care
of the cleanliness and purity of his body and colthes. About the inner purity
caused by salat the God Almighty says in verse No.45 of Surah Ankaboot/Chapter
the spider, “(O Prophet), recite the Book that has been
revealed to you and establish Prayer. Surely Prayer forbids indecency and evil.
And Allah’s remembrance is of even greater merit. Allah knows all that you
Now the question arises that why a number of Muslims who
regularly offer salat do not abstain from wrong doings. The reason is that we
have failed to understand the spirit of salat. Huge majority of us even don’t
know the meaning of verses that we recite in salat. So how can we expect the
desired effects of salat. Salat also teaches the Muslims the traits of piety,
patience, perseverance, humility, discipline, equality and brotherhood. So by
realizing and understanding the spirit of salat and by establishing the
institution of salat, we can acquire eternal success in this life as well as in
the hereafter. Islam is a complete code of life and gives equal importance to
the rights of God and rights of human beings as both are internally linked and
dependent upon each other. Discharging rights of Allah such as offering of salat
reminds us our responsibilities/duties and bring us in contact with Allah
Almighty that in turn incite us to discharge the right of people.