Shuttle Diplomacy is open for . The scholarship allows level programm(s) in the field of taught at . The deadline of the scholarship is .
In diplomacy and international relations, shuttle diplomacy is the use of a third party to serve as an intermediary or mediator between two parties who do not talk directly. The third party travels shuttles between the two primary parties. Shuttle diplomacy is often used when the two primary parties do not formally recognize each other but still want to negotiate.
In some conflicts, direct communication between the parties is unlikely to reduce tensions, but may actually make the situation worse. A situation can be so extreme that merely seeing the other side can cause a setback. Rather than allowing for the exchange of views and producing compromise, direct communication may sometimes result in the simple repetition of demands, lending support to the perception of the conflict's intractability. The attempt is made to paint one's own side in a favorable light and to make the other side look as bad as possible.
Shuttle diplomacy, or mediated communication, can be useful in these types of situations, at least in the early stages when direct communication is likely to be counterproductive. The essence of shuttle diplomacy is the use of a third party to convey information back and forth between the parties, serving as a reliable means of communication less susceptible to the grandstanding of face-to-face or media-based communication. The intermediary serves not only as a relay for questions and answers, but can also provide suggestions for moving the conflict toward resolution and does so in private.
By keeping the communication private and indirect, the parties will not feel a need to use the debating tactics they commonly use in public conversations, and will be able to build up a level of trust that could not have been developed in those circumstances. Once this trust and a certain level of mutual understanding is developed, then face-to-face and even a routine of communications can be started.
The diplomatic innovation of shuttle diplomacy was made possible by modern communication technologies and air transportation, which permits the mediator to travel easily between the negotiating parties. Shuttle diplomacy has subsequently become relatively common in dealing with tense international situations. Mediators are often from powerful states, which provides some impetus for the parties to give the process a chance.
The term "shuttle diplomacy" became widespread following Henry Kissinger's term as United States Secretary of State. Kissinger participated in shuttle diplomacy in the Middle East and in the People's Republic of China.