War on Terrorism is open for . The scholarship allows level programm(s) in the field of taught at . The deadline of the scholarship is .The War on Terrorism
, The War Against Terror,
or War on Terror
can refer to several distinct conflicts, but it is most recently the name given by the United States of America and some of its allies to an ongoing campaign with the stated goal of "ending international terrorism," launched in response to the September 11, 2001 attacks on the U.S., for which al-Qaeda claimed responsibility.
In his address to a joint session of Congress and the American people following the attacks on September 11, 2001, President Bush defines the "war on terror." "Our war on terror begins with al Qaeda, but it does not end there. It will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found, stopped and defeated."
"And we will pursue nations that provide aid or safe haven to terrorism. Every nation, in every region, now has a decision to make. Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists. From this day forward, any nation that continues to harbor or support terrorism will be regarded by the United States as a hostile regime."
The campaign's stated goals include preventing those groups identified as "terrorist" by the United States (largely focused on militant Islamist groups such as al-Qaeda and its affiliates) from carrying out attacks and posing a threat to America and its allies; "spreading freedom" and liberal democracy; and putting an end to state sponsorship of terrorism in so-called rogue and failed states, beginning with Operation Active Endeavor, NATO's anti-terrorism response to the trafficking of weapons. It was followed with the 2001 overthrow of the Taliban government in Afghanistan, which had sheltered elements of al-Qaeda including its leader, Osama bin Laden.
The War on Terrorism was launched by U.S. President George W. Bush, with support from NATO and other allies. The "War on Terror" has taken many forms, such as diplomacy, going after "terrorist financing," domestic provisions aiming to prevent future attacks, and joint training and peacekeeping operations with a wide variety of nations.
The phrase Global War on Terrorism
(or GWOT) is the official name used by the U.S. military for operations designated as part of the campaign. Thus, the "War on Terror" as defined by this article is largely a military effort, and has been compared in both its unspecified, continuing duration and its multiple theaters of operation, to the Cold War. The war is also characterized as an ideological struggle, "involving both a battle of arms and a battle of ideas," and some have characterized it as a "clash of civilizations." Although the U.S.-led coalition that invaded Iraq in 2003 and toppled President Saddam Hussein was made up of allies in the "War on Terror," the current Iraq war and its alleged links to the larger campaign against terrorism have been highly controversial. The Bush Administration has been accused of acting in violation of international law, human rights, and the U.S. Constitution in its execution of the campaign, particularly with regard to the internment of prisoners of war (or "illegal combatants") in its military prison at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba.
The U.S. government's articulation of military doctrines such as pre-emptive war and "regime change" as part of the War on Terror, as well as Bush and Blair's justifications for the war, have also been controversial. Both the larger concept of a "War on Terrorism," and the specific tactics used, have been subject to widespread criticism outside of the United States, and world opinion polls have shown limited support even in some nations whose governments and militaries are supportive. In addition, according to the U.S. government's own measures, international terrorist incidents have been on the rise since the campaign began. However, the U.S. and allies have claimed victories, such as democratic elections in Afghanistan and Iraq, and the capture of alleged 9/11 planner Khalid Sheikh Mohammed. The War on Terrorism has resulted in high military casualties on both sides, as well as high civilian casualties, although very few United States civilians have been killed other than those who died on 9/11, and is a "long war" whose planners expect it to continue for the foreseeable future.
In December 2006, the British Foreign Office advised the government to stop using the phrase "War on Terror." A spokesperson for the department said the government wanted to "avoid reinforcing and giving succour to the terrorists' narrative by using language that, taken out of context, could be counter-productive." Also, in December 2006, U.S. Secretary of Defense, Donald Rumsfeld, as he prepared to end his tenure, expressed regret over the Bush Administration's use of the phrase "War on Terror," saying the phrase had created unattainable expectations and that "it's not a war on terror. Terror is a weapon of choice for extremists who are trying to destabilize regimes and impose their — in the hands of a small group of clerics — their dark vision on all the people that they can control."